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When he was referred to in foreign languages, he acquired even more variant spellings. According to a host of Websites and books, William Shakespeare was called upon to add his artistic touch to the English translation of the Bible done at the behest of King James, which was finished in 1611. No writer’s living reputation can compare to that of Shakespeare, whose notable plays include the tragedies Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, and Othello. It was exactly Prospero’s eager pursuit of magical knowledge that gave his brother the opportunity to usurp him, taking away his power by taking his title. [6], Fifty-eight quarto (or Q) editions of Shakespeare's plays and five editions of poetry were published before the First Folio. When he was referred to in foreign languages, he acquired even more variant spellings. And there are no "Shakespearean" scripts in his handwriting. The themes of witchcraft and magic loom large over Shakespeare’s later plays. [5], The writer David Kathman has tabulated the variations in the spelling of Shakespeare's name as reproduced in Samuel Schoenbaum's William Shakespeare: A Documentary Life. However its spelled, Shakespeare is thought to derive from the Old English words schakken (to brandish) and speer (spear), and probably referred to a confrontational or ar… This list of Shakespeare plays brings together all 38 plays in alphabetical order. The name printed at the end of the poem The Phoenix and the Turtle, which was published in a collection of verse in 1601, is hyphenated, as is the name on the title page and the poem A Lover's Complaint of Shake-speares Sonnets (1609). Because he is known to have signed his name "Shakspere" when writing it out in full, this is the spelling sometimes adopted. The bard himself was known to switch up the spelling of his last name during his lifetime, although he did spell it Shakespeare on the last page of his will, filed shortly before his death in 1616. He never called himself “William Shakespeare". The standard spelling of the surname as "Shakespeare" was the most common published form in Shakespeare's lifetime, but it was not one used in his own handwritten signatures. Answer Save. Each Shakespeare’s play name links to a range of resources about each play: Character summaries, plot outlines, example essays and famous quotes, soliloquies and monologues: All’s Well That Ends Well Antony and Cleopatra As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Coriolanus Cymbeline Hamlet Henry IV Part 1 Henry IV Part 2 Henry VIII Henry VI Part 1 Henry VI Part 2 Henry VI Part 3 Henry V Julius Caesar King John King Lear Loves Labour’s Lost Macbeth Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night’s Dream Much Ado About Nothing Othello Pericles Richard II Richard III Romeo & Juliet  The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus & Cressida  Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Winter’s Tale. In Britain the New Shakspere Society was founded in 1873 by Frederick James Furnivall and, in America, the Shakspere Society of Philadelphia adopted the spelling. [2] The final signature was discovered by 1909 by Charles William Wallace. Over the years there have been a number of variations in the spelling of ‘Shakespeare’, as well as some ridiculous mispells. ~Some names Shakespeare intentionally made, based on their role in the story. View Playing Fast and Loose with Shakespeare's Name - how did Shakespeare spell his own name anyway?.pdf from ENGL B225 at Bryn Mawr College. It is also spelled this way on the misattributed quarto of Sir John Oldcastle (1600; 1619) and on the verse collection The Passionate Pilgrim (1599). 18th-century French critics were known to use "Shakpear, Shakespehar, Shakespeart, or Shakees Pear. Shakespeare spelled his name in different ways, according to remaining records. [1], The three signatures on the will were first reproduced by the 18th-century scholar George Steevens, in the form of facsimile engravings. there is only one way to spell Shakespeare. There are six surviving signatures written by Shakespeare himself. The six signatures appear on four documents: Most of these are abbreviated versions of the name, using breviographic conventions of the time. As proof for this idea, proponents point to Psalm 46, and allege that Shakespeare slipped his name into the text. 16. Shakespeare was writing in the era before Samuel Johnson’s dictionary – which started the process of standardising English spelling – so he was rather relaxed about words. William Shakespeare (bapt. (Thomas Middleton, The Phoenix, Act II, Scene ii) In a recent letter to the editor of theNew York Times,Prof. We probably don't spell Shakespeare's name correctly. 18th-century French critics were known to use "Shakpear, Shakespehar, Shakespeart, or Shakees Pear." [13] This spelling continued to be popular throughout the later Georgian period. George Bernard Shaw, a strong advocate of spelling reform, insisted on the use of this spelling in all his publications. The former folded in 1894, but the latter still exists under its original name. Isaac D'Israeli wrote a strongly worded letter condemning this spelling as a "barbaric curt shock". [16], The "Shakespear" spelling continued to be used by scholars throughout the 18th century, including William Warburton. So, among the most common spellings of Shakespeare over the years were: It is believed that Shakespeare wrote 38 plays in total between 1590 and 1612. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon" (or simply "the Bard"). [4] Another possibly authentic signature appears on a copy of William Lambarde's Archaionomia (1568). [20] The spelling continued to be preferred by many writers during the Victorian era, including the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in The Germ. Top Answer. ~Some serve as clever It was, however, the spelling used as a printed signature to the dedications of the first editions of his poems Venus and Adonis in 1593 and The Rape of Lucrece in 1594. [6] It is spelled this way in the first quartos of The Merchant of Venice (1600), A Midsummer Night's Dream (1600), Much Ado About Nothing (1600), The Merry Wives of Windsor (1602), Pericles, Prince of Tyre (1609), Troilus and Cressida (1609), Othello (1622). [3] There is also a signature on the fly-leaf of a copy of John Florio's translation of the works of Montaigne, which reads "Willm. Although this form had been used occasionally in earlier publications, and other spellings continued to appear, from that point "Shakespeare" gained the dominance which it retains to this day. Even German scholars such as Friedrich Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck adopted it. [15] "Shakespear" was less widely used into the 19th and 20th centuries, increasingly by advocates of rational spelling. [18] Pinkerton did so in Letters on Literature, published under the pen-name Robert Heron. In Shakespeare's time, people were not such sticklers for "correct" spellings as we are today. In some cases there were even imagined to be three Shakespeares: the author, the actor and the Stratford man.[8][33]. His major works were published after his death with the new spelling. Shakespeare's signature appears on only 6 documents, and he spelled his name differently on each one. There was a heated debate in 1787, followed by another in 1840 when the spelling was promoted in a book by Frederic Madden, who insisted that new manuscript evidence proved that the poet always wrote his name "Shakspere". 7 8 9. Did Shakespeare spell his name in different ways? Not once did he spell it "Shakespeare": Willm Shackper William Shakspear Wm Shakspea William Shackspere Wllm. For example Edmund Spenser sometimes wrote his name out in full (spelling his first name Edmund or Edmond), but often used the abbreviated forms "Ed: spser" or "Edm: spser". However, H.N. [6], According to Hunter it was in 1785 that the antiquarian John Pinkerton first revived the spelling "Shakspere" in the belief that this was the correct form as "traced by the poet's own hand" in his signatures. The exhibition Shakespeare’s Potions is on display until June 26, 2016 at the Currier Museum of Art.. Potions, poisons and spells are fundamental to the work of William Shakespeare. [34], Some authors claim that the use of a hyphen in early published versions of the name is an indication that it is a pseudonym. [8][32], The use of different spellings was sometimes simply a convenience, to clarify which "Shakespeare" was being discussed. What did Shakespeare leave his wife in his will? These are followed by "Shakespear" (16); "Shakspeare" (13); "Shackspeare" (12) and "Shakspere" (8). [28], The spelling "Shakespeare" was vigorously defended by Isaac D'Israeli in his original letter to the Gentleman's Magazine. 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